# Binary signal in computer registers for a given applications

The laser entering the pot is not reflected. This is interpreted as 0. The reflected pattern of light from the rotating disk falls on a receiving photoelectric detector that transforms the patterns into digital form.

Magnetic technology is mostly used on storage devices that are coated with special magnetic materials such as iron oxide. It has proved difficult to develop devices that can understand natural language directly due to the complexity of natural languages. All forms of data can be represented in binary system format. Other reasons for the use of binary are that digital devices are more reliable, small and use less energy as compared to analog devices.

Bits, bytes, nibble and word The terms bits, bytes, nibble and word are used widely in reference to computer memory and data size. It is the basic unit of data or information in digital computers. A byte is considered as the basic unit of measuring memory size in computer. The term word length is used as the measure of the number of bits in each word.

For example, a word can have a length of 16 bits, 32 bits, 64 bits etc. Computers not only process numbers, letters and special symbols but also complex types of data such as sound and pictures. However, these complex types of data take a lot of memory and processor time when coded in binary form. This limitation necessitates the need to develop better ways of handling long streams of binary digits. Higher number systems are used in computing to reduce these streams of binary digits into manageable form.

This helps to improve the processing speed and optimize memory usage. Number systems and their representation A number system is a set of symbols used to represent values derived from a common base or radix. As far as computers are concerned, number systems can be classified into two major categories: Decimal number system has ten digits ranging from Because this system has ten digits; it is also called a base ten number system or denary number system.

A decimal number should always be written with a subscript 10 e. X 10 But since this is the most widely used number system in the world, the subscript is usually understood and ignored in written work. However ,when many number systems are considered together, the subscript must always be put so as to differentiate the number systems.

The magnitude of a number can be considered using these parameters. Absolute value Place value or positional value Base value The absolute value is the magnitude of a digit in a number. The place value of a digit in a number refers to the position of the digit in that number i. The total value of a number is the sum of the place value of each digit making the number.

The base value of a number also k known as the radix , depends on the type of the number systems that is being used. The value of any number depends on the radix. It uses two digits namely, 1 and 0 to represent numbers. Octal number system Consists of eight digits ranging from A hexadecimal number can be denoted using 16 as a subscript or capital letter H to the right of the number. For example, 94B can be written as 94B16 or 94BH.

Further conversion of numbers from one number system to another To convert numbers from one system to another. Converting between binary and decimal numbers. Converting octal numbers to decimal and binary form. Converting hexadecimal numbers to decimal and binary form. First, write the place values starting from the right hand side. Write each digit under its place value. Multiply each digit by its corresponding place value.

Add up the products. The answer will be the decimal number in base ten. The binary equivalent of the fractional part is extracted from the products by reading the respective integral digits from the top downwards as shown by the arrow next page. Combine the two parts together to set the binary equivalent. Solution Convert the integral and the fractional parts separately then add them up. For the fractional part, proceed as follows: Multiply the fractional part by 2 and note down the product Take the fractional part of the immediate product and multiply it by 2 again.

Continue this process until the fractional part of the subsequent product is 0 or starts to repeat itself. The following examples illustrate how to convert hexadecimal number to a decimal numberExample Convert octal number 8 to its binary equivalent Solution Working from left to the right, each octal number is represented using three digits and then combined we get the final binary equivalent.

Converting hexadecimal numbers to decimal number To convert hexadecimal number to base 10 equivalent we proceed as follows: However, it is important to note that the maximum absolute value of a octal digit is 7. For example Is not a valid octal number because digit 9 is not an octal digit, but 8 is valid because all the digits are in the range Example shows how to convert an octal number to a decimal number.

Octal digit Binary equivalents 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Example Convert the hexadecimal number 16 to its binary equivalent.

Solution Place each number under its place value. In computing, a single character such as a letter, a number or a symbol is represented by a group of bits. The number of bits per character depends on the coding scheme used. The most common coding schemes are: For example, a number like 9 can be represented using Binary Coded Decimal as 2. Binary Coded Decimal is mostly used in simple electronic devices like calculators and microwaves.

This is because it makes it easier to process and display individual numbers on their Liquid Crystal Display LCD screens. A standard Binary Coded Decimal , an enhanced format of Binary Coded Decimal, is a 6-bit representation scheme which can represent non-numeric characters. This allows 64 characters to be represented. A total of 2 8 characters can be coded using this scheme. For example, the symbolic representation of letter A using Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange code is 2. However, manufactures have added an eight bit to this coding scheme, which can now provide for characters.

This 8-bit coding scheme is referred to as an 8-bit American standard code for information interchange. When below that threshold, the signal is low , when above high. To create a digital signal, an analog signal must be modulated with a control signal to produce it. As we have already seen, the simplest modulation, a type of unipolar line coding is simply to switch on and off a DC signal, so that high voltages are a '1' and low voltages are '0'.

In digital radio schemes one or more carrier waves are amplitude or frequency or phase modulated with a signal to produce a digital signal suitable for transmission.

In Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line over telephone wires , ADSL does not primarily use binary logic; the digital signals for individual carriers are modulated with different valued logics, depending on the Shannon capacity of the individual channel. Often digital signals are "sampled" by a clock signal at regular intervals by passing the signal through an "edge sensitive" flip-flop.

When this is done the input is measured at those points in time, and the signal from that time is passed through to the output and the output is then held steady till the next clock. This process is the basis of synchronous logic , and the system is also used in digital signal processing. However, asynchronous logic also exists, which uses no single clock, and generally operates more quickly, and may use less power, but is significantly harder to design.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about digital signals in electronics. For digital data and systems, see Digital data. For digital signals that specifically represent analog waveforms, see Digital signal signal processing. For other uses, see Digital signal disambiguation. For a broader coverage related to this topic, see Signal electrical engineering. Digital signal signal processing. A logic signal waveform: The Art Of Electronics, 2nd Ed. A digital signal is a special form of discrete-time signal which is discrete in both time and amplitude, obtained by permitting each value sample of a discrete-time signal to acquire a finite set of values quantization , assigning it a numerical symbol according to a code A digital signal is a sequence or list of numbers drawn from a finite set.

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Line coding digital baseband transmission. Unipolar encoding Bipolar encoding On-off keying. Carrier-suppressed return-to-zero Alternate-phase return-to-zero. Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication Optical fiber Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves Transmission line. Space-division Frequency-division Time-division Polarization-division Orbital angular-momentum Code-division. Retrieved from " https: Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages. Views Read Edit View history.