Buy call option payoff
A call option gives you the right, but not obligation, to buy the underlying security at the given strike price. Below the strike, the payoff chart is constant and negative the trade is a loss. For example, if underlying price is Same as scenario 1 in fact. Finally, this is the scenario which a call option holder is hoping for. Because the option gives you the right to buy the underlying at strike price If you bought the option at 2.
You can also see this in the payoff diagram where underlying price X-axis is Initial cash flow is constant — the same under all scenarios. It is a product of three things:. Of course, with a long call position the initial cash flow is negative, as you are buying the options in the beginning. The second component of a call option payoff, cash flow at expiration, varies depending on underlying price.
That said, it is actually quite simple and you can construct it from the scenarios discussed above. If underlying price is below than or equal to strike price, the cash flow at expiration is always zero, as you just let the option expire and do nothing. If underlying price is above the strike price, you exercise the option and you can immediately sell it on the market at the current underlying price.
Therefore the cash flow is the difference between underlying price and strike price, times number of shares. Putting all the scenarios together, we can say that the cash flow at expiration is equal to the greater of:. It is the same formula. The screenshot below illustrates call option payoff calculation in Excel. Besides the MAX function, which is very simple, it is all basic arithmetics. One other thing you may want to calculate is the exact underlying price where your long call position starts to be profitable.
If you don't agree with any part of this Agreement, please leave the website now. All information is for educational purposes only and may be inaccurate, incomplete, outdated or plain wrong. The seller or "writer" is obligated to sell the commodity or financial instrument to the buyer if the buyer so decides. The buyer pays a fee called a premium for this right. The term "call" comes from the fact that the owner has the right to "call the stock away" from the seller.
Option values vary with the value of the underlying instrument over time. The price of the call contract must reflect the "likelihood" or chance of the call finishing in-the-money. The call contract price generally will be higher when the contract has more time to expire except in cases when a significant dividend is present and when the underlying financial instrument shows more volatility.
Determining this value is one of the central functions of financial mathematics. The most common method used is the Black—Scholes formula. Importantly, the Black-Scholes formula provides an estimate of the price of European-style options. Adjustment to Call Option: When a call option is in-the-money i. Some of them are as follows:. Similarly if the buyer is making loss on his position i. Trading options involves a constant monitoring of the option value, which is affected by the following factors:.
Moreover, the dependence of the option value to price, volatility and time is not linear — which makes the analysis even more complex.