Physical and geometrical parameters of the binary system gliese 1502
It has an apparent visual magnitude which varies between 5. John Flamsteed numbered the stars of Pisces from 1 topublishing his Catalogus Britannicus in He accidentally numbered Piscium twice, as he also allocated it the designation of 2 Arietis.
Inbased on data collected during the Hipparcos mission, the star was categorized as physical and geometrical parameters of the binary system gliese 1502 astrometric binary with a period of 0. However, this result has not been not confirmed. Constellation — A constellation is formally defined as a region of the celestial sphere, with boundaries laid down by the International Astronomical Union.
The constellation areas mostly had their origins in Western-traditional patterns of stars from which the constellations take their names, inthe International Astronomical Union officially recognized the 88 modern constellations, which cover the entire sky. They began as the 48 classical Greek constellations laid physical and geometrical parameters of the binary system gliese 1502 by Ptolemy in the Almagest, Constellations in the far southern sky are late 16th- and mid 18th-century constructions.
The term constellation can refer to the stars within the boundaries of that constellation. Any given point in a coordinate system can unambiguously be assigned to a single constellation. Many astronomical naming systems give the constellation in which an object is found along with a designation in order to convey a rough idea in which part of the sky it is located.
Colloquial usage does not draw a distinction between constellation in the sense of an asterism and constellation in the sense of an area surrounding an asterism. The modern system of constellations used in astronomy employs the latter concept, the term circumpolar constellation is used for any constellation that, from a particular latitude on Earth, never sets below the horizon.
From the North Pole or South Pole, all constellations south or physical and geometrical parameters of the binary system gliese 1502 of the equator are circumpolar constellations. In the equatorial or temperate latitudes, the term equatorial constellation has sometimes been used for constellations that lie to physical and geometrical parameters of the binary system gliese 1502 opposite the circumpolar constellations.
They generally include all constellations that intersect the celestial equator or part of the zodiac, usually the only thing the stars in a constellation have in common is that they appear near each other in the sky when viewed from the Earth.
In galactic space, the stars of a constellation usually lie at a variety of distances, since stars also travel on their physical and geometrical parameters of the binary system gliese 1502 orbits through the Milky Way, the star patterns of the constellations change slowly over time.
After tens to hundreds of thousands of years, their familiar outlines will become unrecognisable, the terms chosen for the constellation themselves, together with the appearance of a constellation, may reveal where and when its constellation makers lived.
The earliest direct evidence for the constellations comes from inscribed stones and it seems that the bulk of the Mesopotamian constellations were created within a relatively physical and geometrical parameters of the binary system gliese 1502 interval from around to BC.
Pisces constellation — Pisces is a constellation of the zodiac. Its name is the Latin plural for fish and it lies between Aquarius to the west and Aries to the east. The ecliptic and the equator intersect within this constellation and in Virgo.
It has many clusters of stars and the associated nebulae. Its jets, caused by the black hole at its center. Pisces is associated with Aphrodite and Eros, who escaped from the monster Typhon by leaping into the sea, in order not to lose each other, they tied themselves together with rope.
The Romans adopted the Greek legend, with Venus and Cupid acting as the counterparts for Aphrodite, the knot of the rope is marked by Alpha Piscium, also called Al-Rischa. However the proposal was largely neglected by other astronomers with the exception of Admiral Smyth, who mentioned it in his book The Bedford Catalogue, and it is now obsolete. The Fishes are also associated with the German legend of Antenteh, who owned just a tub and they offered him a wish, which he refused.
However, his wife begged him to return to the fish and this wish was granted, but her desires were not satisfied. She then asked to be a queen and have a palace, but when she asked to become a goddess, the tub in the story is sometimes recognized as the Great Square of Pegasus.
Right ascension — Right ascension is the angular distance measured eastward along the celestial equator from the vernal equinox to the hour circle of the point in question. When combined with declination, these astronomical coordinates specify the direction of a point on the sphere in the equatorial coordinate system. Right ascension is the equivalent of terrestrial longitude. Both right ascension and longitude measure an angle from a direction on an equator.
Right ascension is measured continuously in a circle from that equinox towards the east. Any units of measure could have been chosen for right ascension, but it is customarily measured in hours, minutes. Astronomers have chosen this unit to measure right ascension because they measure a stars location by timing its passage through the highest point in the sky as the Earth rotates.
The highest point in the sky, called meridian, is the projection of a line onto the celestial sphere.
Because right ascensions are measured in hours, they can be used to time the positions of objects in the sky. Usually measured in degrees, it is the complement of right ascension with respect to 24h and it is important not to confuse sidereal hour angle with the astronomical concept of hour angle, which measures angular distance of an object westward from the local meridian. The Earths axis rotates slowly westward about the poles of the ecliptic and this effect, known as precession, causes the coordinates of stationary celestial objects to change continuously, if rather slowly.
Therefore, equatorial coordinates are inherently relative to the year of their observation, coordinates from different epochs must be mathematically rotated to match each other, or to match a standard epoch. The right ascension of Polaris is increasing quickly, the North Ecliptic Pole in Draco and the South Ecliptic Pole in Dorado are always at right ascension 18h and 6h respectively.
The currently used standard epoch is J But Hipparchus and his successors made their star catalogs in ecliptic coordinates, the easiest way to do that is to use an equatorial mount, which allows the telescope to be aligned with one of its two pivots parallel to the Earths axis.
Declination — In astronomy, declination is one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle. Declinations angle is measured north or south of the celestial equator, the root of the word declination means a bending away or a bending down.
It comes from the root as the words incline and recline. Declination in astronomy is comparable to geographic latitude, projected onto the celestial sphere, points north of the celestial equator have positive declinations, while those south have negative declinations. Any units of measure can be used for declination, but it is customarily measured in the degrees, minutes.
This effect, known as precession, causes the coordinates of stationary celestial objects to change continuously, therefore, equatorial coordinates are inherently relative to the year of their observation, and astronomers specify them with reference to a particular year, known as an epoch. Coordinates from different epochs must be rotated to match each other. Circumpolar stars never dip below the horizon, conversely, there are other stars that never rise above the horizon, as seen from any given point on the Earths surface.
Non-circumpolar stars are visible only during certain days or seasons of the year, the Suns declination varies with the seasons. As seen from arctic or antarctic latitudes, the Sun is circumpolar near the summer solstice, leading to the phenomenon of it being above the horizon at midnight.
Apparent magnitude — The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. The measurement of apparent magnitudes or brightnesses of celestial objects is known as photometry, apparent magnitudes are used to quantify the brightness of sources at ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelengths.
An apparent magnitude is measured in a specific passband corresponding to some photometric system such as the UBV system. In standard astronomical notation, an apparent magnitude in the V filter band physical and geometrical parameters of the binary system gliese 1502 be denoted either as mV or often simply as V, the scale used to indicate magnitude originates in the Hellenistic practice of dividing stars visible to the naked eye into six magnitudes.
The brightest stars in the sky were said to be of first magnitude, whereas the faintest were of sixth magnitude. Each grade of magnitude was considered twice the brightness of the following grade and this rather crude scale for the brightness of stars was popularized by Ptolemy in his Almagest, and is generally believed to have originated with Hipparchus.
This implies that a star of magnitude m is 2. The zero point of Pogsons scale was defined by assigning Polaris a magnitude of exactly 2. However, with the advent of infrared astronomy it was revealed that Vegas radiation includes an Infrared excess presumably due to a disk consisting of dust at warm temperatures. At shorter wavelengths, there is negligible emission from dust at these temperatures, however, in order to properly extend the magnitude scale further into the infrared, this peculiarity of Vega should not affect the definition of the magnitude scale.
Therefore, the scale was extrapolated to all wavelengths on the basis of the black body radiation curve for an ideal stellar surface at K uncontaminated by circumstellar radiation. On this basis the spectral irradiance for the zero magnitude point, with the modern magnitude systems, brightness over a very wide range is specified according to the logarithmic definition detailed below, using this zero reference. In practice such apparent magnitudes do not exceed 30, astronomers have developed other photometric zeropoint systems physical and geometrical parameters of the binary system gliese 1502 alternatives to the Vega system.
The AB magnitude zeropoint is defined such that an objects AB, the dimmer an object appears, the higher the numerical value given to its apparent magnitude, with a difference of 5 magnitudes corresponding to a brightness factor of exactly Stellar classification — In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics. Electromagnetic radiation from the star is analyzed by splitting it with a prism or diffraction grating into a spectrum exhibiting the rainbow of colors interspersed with absorption lines, each line indicates an ion of a certain chemical element, with the line strength physical and geometrical parameters of the binary system gliese 1502 the abundance of that ion.
The relative abundance of the different ions varies with the temperature of the photosphere, the spectral class of a star is a short code summarizing the ionization state, giving an objective measure of the photospheres temperature and density.
Each letter class is subdivided using a numeric digit with 0 being hottest and 9 being coolest. The sequence has been expanded with classes for other stars and star-like objects that do not fit in the system, such as class D for white dwarfs. In the MK system, a luminosity class is added to the class using Roman numerals. This is based on the width of absorption lines in the stars spectrum. The full spectral class for the Sun is then G2V, indicating a main-sequence star physical and geometrical parameters of the binary system gliese 1502 a temperature around 5, K, the conventional color description takes into account only the peak of the stellar spectrum.
This means that the assignment of colors of the spectrum can be misleading. There are no green, indigo, or violet stars, likewise, the brown dwarfs do not literally appear brown.
The modern classification system is known as the Morgan—Keenan classification, each star is assigned a spectral class from the older Harvard spectral classification and a luminosity class using Roman numerals as explained below, forming the stars spectral type. The spectral classes O through M, as well as more specialized classes discussed later, are subdivided by Arabic numerals.
For example, A0 denotes the hottest stars in the A class, fractional numbers are allowed, for example, the star Mu Normae is classified as O9. The Sun is classified as G2, the conventional color descriptions are traditional in astronomy, and represent colors relative to the mean color of an A-class star, which is considered to be white. The apparent color descriptions are what the observer would see if trying to describe the stars under a dark sky without aid to the eye, or with binoculars.
However, most stars in the sky, except the brightest ones, red supergiants are cooler and redder than dwarfs of the same spectral type, and stars with particular spectral features such as carbon stars may be far redder than any black body. O- B- and A-type stars are called early type. Variable star — A variable star is a star whose brightness as seen from Earth fluctuates. Many, possibly most, stars have at least physical and geometrical parameters of the binary system gliese 1502 variation in luminosity, an ancient Egyptian calendar of lucky and unlucky days composed some 3, years ago may be the oldest preserved historical document of the discovery of physical and geometrical parameters of the binary system gliese 1502 variable star, the eclipsing binary Algol.
This discovery, physical and geometrical parameters of the binary system gliese 1502 with supernovae observed in andproved that the sky was not eternally invariable as Aristotle. In this way, the discovery of variable stars contributed to the revolution of the sixteenth. The second variable star to be described was the eclipsing variable Algol, by Geminiano Montanari inchi Cygni was identified in by G. Kirch, then R Hydrae in by G.
Since the number of variable stars has increased rapidly, especially after when it became possible to identify variable stars by means of photography. The latest edition of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars lists more than 46, variable stars in the Milky Way, as well as 10, in other galaxies, and over 10, suspected variables.
The most common kinds of variability involve changes in brightness, but other types of variability also occur, by combining light curve data with observed spectral changes, astronomers are often able to explain why a particular star is variable. Variable stars are generally analysed using photometry, spectrophotometry and spectroscopy, measurements of their changes in brightness can be plotted to produce light curves.
Peak brightnesses in the curve are known as maxima, while troughs are known as minima. By estimating the magnitude and noting the time of observation a visual lightcurve can be constructed. The American Association of Variable Star Observers collects such observations from participants around the world, from the light curve the following data are derived, are the brightness variations periodical, semiperiodical, irregular, or unique.
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